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Table 4 Comparison of experimental conditions (control, non-gamified; and experimental; gamified) in terms of participants’ IDE usage in each time-point (TP)

From: Gamification suffers from the novelty effect but benefits from the familiarization effect: Findings from a longitudinal study

  Yuen-Welch test Effect size
TP t(df) p p-adj 95% CI ES 95% CI
1 12.132 (186.58) 0.000 0.000 − 78.997 − 56.898 0.599 0.469 0.719
2 18.060 (282.93) 0.000 0.000 − 73.875 − 59.354 0.717 0.594 0.812
3 3.347 (120.61) 0.001 0.002 − 72.908 − 18.713 0.213 0.064 0.367
4 3.692 (126.42) 0.000 0.001 − 44.746 − 13.517 0.214 0.067 0.368
5 1.935 (113.97) 0.056 0.056 − 34.214 0.405 0.123 0.000 0.288
6 3.233 (154.58) 0.002 0.002 − 31.532 − 7.611 0.199 0.038 0.346
7 3.227 (132.07) 0.002 0.002 − 25.468 − 6.109 0.199 0.037 0.354