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Table 4 Evaluation indicators of LMS identity changes

From: The identity changes in online learning and teaching: instructors, learners, and learning management systems

LMS identity Indicator
Communication channel Interpersonal communication channels are organised and introduced (e.g., self-introduction, Q&A, and group forming)
Interaction channel Activities for individuals and groups are organised, and inter-group connections are available (e.g., real-time document editing and sharing for individuals and groups)
Collaboration space Regular group meetings, scheduled outcomes through in-group sharing and peer assessment are implemented (e.g., groups produce artefacts and share them with other groups in a workspace)
Community place Inter-group engagement or external promotion of learning outcomes is organised and facilitated (e.g., groups present their work in an online community and interact with other participants)