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Table 4 Descriptive data and independent sample t-tests of the pre-test results

From: Adaptive e-learning environment based on learning styles and its impact on development students' engagement

Engagement factor Learning group No Mean Std. D t value p
Skills Experimental group
Control group
60
58
34.81
23.34
1.34
1.79
4.086 0.001*
Participation/Interaction Experimental group
Control group
60
58
21.05
13.26
1.09
1.43
2.210 0.002*
Performance Experimental group
Control group
60
58
25.86
14.60
1.47
1.35
2.071 0.003*
Emotional Experimental group
Control group
60
58
24.93
13.07
1.84
2.03
2.909 0.001*
Average score Experimental group
Control group
60
58
38.87 1.80 4.738 0.003*
26.13 2.17
  1. *p < 0.05, *Significant at 0.05 level