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Table 4 Unstandardized estimates, standard errors, critical ratios and confidence intervals of the paths in the model

From: CAVE-based immersive learning in undergraduate courses: examining the effect of group size and time of application

Construct Path Construct Estimate S. E C. R 95% CI
VR features Group size − 0.106 0.036 − 2.941 [− 0.177, − 0.035]
Usability VR features 0.939 0.180 5.213 [0.586, 1.292]
Perceived ease of use Usability 0.553 0.092 5.989 [0.373, 0.733]
Motivation Usability 1.240 0.199 6.226 [0.850, 1.630]
Cognitive benefits Usability 2.057 0.319 6.450 [1.432, 2.682]
Control and active learning Usability 1.782 0.287 6.203 [1.219, 2.345]
Motivation Perceived ease of use 0.216 0.043 4.971 [0.132, 0.300]
Reflective thinking Usability 1.810 0.302 5.989 [1.218, 2.402]
Presence VR features 1.065 0.204 5.213 [0.665, 1.465]
Learning outcomes Presence 0.100 0.043 2.320 [0.016, 0.184]
Learning outcomes Motivation 0.449 0.059 7.610 [0.333, 0.565]
Learning outcomes Cognitive benefits 0.217 0.047 4.649 [0.125, 0.309]
Learning outcomes Control and active learning 0.127 0.042 2.986 [0.045, 0.209]
Learning outcomes Reflective thinking 0.179 0.036 5.033 [0.108, 0.250]
Perceived learning effectiveness Learning outcomes 1.003 0.055 18.251 [0.895, 1.111]
Satisfaction Learning outcomes 0.997 0.055 18.251 [0.889, 1.105]
Performance achievement Learning outcomes 0.107 0.032 3.367 [0.044, 0.170]
Perceived usefulness Usability 2.587 0.400 6.467 [1.803, 3.371]
Performance achievement Group size − 0.058 0.025 − 2.373 [− 0.107, − 0.009]
Representational fidelity VR features 2.612 0.420 6.226 [1.789, 3.435]
Immediacy of control VR features 2.373 0.375 6.322 [1.638, 3.108]
  1. C. R. Critical ratio, CI confidence interval