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Table 8 Course design features promote learning engagement

From: Examining learning engagement in MOOCs: a self-determination theoretical perspective using mixed method

ThemeFeatureDefinitionExample
Active learningConnectivityLearning is connected to real-world issues, daily life examples.This math course is well connected the math knowledge to our daily life experience. It helps us to understand the abstract concepts and problems in ...
InteractivityParticipants are provided with online platform (e.g., social media) or contents (e.g., video lectures with embedded quizzes) to interact with other people (e.g., tutors), and course materials.“...the convenience of the interaction support me to [ask questions] to understand the contents depth...”
Course resourcesConcisenessCourse contents are well structured (e.g., key points in bullet form), and clear explanations and instructions in the video lectures or forums.“The summary notes are more concise...The concepts and skills are listed [in one page]. [It] gives systematic view of the concepts, which helps a lot for the beginners.”
FlexibilityCourses that allow learners to repeatedly access the materials they need without time or space limitations.“I could choose what to watch or read, and when (and where to do my learning) ... I felt that I could decide what I would learn in the MOOC, according to my needs.”
VisualizationIllustrations or demonstrations of course materials using relevant videos, and graphs.“Visual discussion via video rather than just written text helped me to grasp the concepts quicker and held my attention.”
Instructor attributesProfessionalityThe depth of specialized knowledge the instructor demonstrated in the video lectures or interactive platforms (e.g., forums).“... the instructors had a great depth of knowledge and [the explanations] were easy to understand”
PersonalityInstructor’s personality traits such as showing humor and support to students.“The tutors seemed very sympathetic, approachable people – their enthusiasm for the course shines through”
Teaching styleInstructor’s teaching strategies (e.g., giving clear examples).“The instructors will take a consideration on some aspects of the knowledge that we may lack of”
Willingness to communicateInstructor’s willingness to communicate regularly to the students (e.g., setting aside weekly time to interact with students).“...[the instructors] obvious commitment to ensure that ... many opportunities they provide for interaction with them”
BehaviourInstructor actual responding to students (e.g., giving answers concerning the common problems that students ask).“[After I asked questions to the instructors], they will reply to me in 24 h”
ApproachDifferent approaches (e.g., forum, social media) that instructor used to communicate with students.“[I can feel the connection] through weekly feedback videos based on course comments.”