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Table 2 Critical Success Factor Loadinga

From: Integrating students’ perspectives about online learning: a hierarchy of factors

Survey Items Factor 1 Teaching Presence Factor 2 Cognitive Presence Factor 3 Social Presence Factor 4 Instructional Support Factor 5 Basic Online Modality Factor 6 Online Social Comfort Factor 7 Interactive Modality
Online instructor provides clear instructions on how to participate in course learning activities. 0.8165       
Online instructor helps keep the course participants on task in a way that helped me to learn. 0.7801       
Online instructor clearly communicates important due dates/time frames for learning activities. 0.7651       
Online instructor provides feedback that helped me understand my strengths and weaknesses relative to the course’s goals and objectives. 0.7611       
Online instructor provides feedback in a timely fashion. 0.7293       
Online instructor clearly communicates important course goals. 0.6956       
Online instructor helps to focus discussion on relevant issues in a way that helped me to learn. 0.6379       
Online instructor encourages course participants to explore new concepts in this course. 0.6345       
Online course provide opportunities for meaningful reflection on course content   0.8525      
Online learning activities help me construct explanations/solutions in online courses.   0.8408      
Course activities stimulate my curiosity in online courses.   0.7206      
I can apply the knowledge created in online courses to my work or other non-class related activities.   0.6945      
I can utilize a variety of information sources to explore problems posed in online courses.   0.6628      
Online discussions are valuable in helping me appreciate different perspectives.   0.5518      
Posing problems in online courses increases my interest in course issues.   0.4220      
Getting to know other course participants gives me a sense of belonging in the course.    0.7551     
I am able to form distinct impressions of other course participants.    0.6484     
interaction with other students    0.6390 0.3125    
a sense of community in the class    0.5509 0.4327    
Online or web-based communication is an excellent medium for social interaction.    0.5026    0.3080  
including student goals    0.3950     
sufficient rehearsal of material, skills to be learned, etc.     0.7241    
instructor providing feedback     0.6852    
instructor having enthusiasm     0.6610    
the use of a variety of techniques to communicate and learn     0.4724    
navigation (e.g., being able to find what you want)     0.4010 0.3227   
syllabus (more detailed than in a face-to-face class)     0.3546    
allowing students to make online submissions      0.8136   
online gradebook      0.7464   
online grading of assignments by instructors      0.7409   
online quizzes      0.3308   
I felt comfortable participating in the course discussions.       0.8816  
I felt comfortable disagreeing with other classmates in online courses while still maintaining a sense of trust.       0.8149  
Online discussions help me to develop a sense of collaboration.       0.5301  
Zoom or other videoconference methods        0.9238
video lectures        0.7540
small groups discussions (chat rooms)        0.4920
  1. aSeven factors explain 67% of the variance. Decimal places and loadings less than .30 omitted