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Table 6 Description of Research Themes

From: Big data in education: a state of the art, limitations, and future research directions

Studies ThemesDescriptionReferences
Learners behavior and performanceStudies that investigated the learner’s attitude, satisfaction, strategies, behavior, big data frameworks, adaptive learning, teaching and learning analytics.(Cantabella, Martínez-España, Ayuso, Yáñez, & Muñoz, 2019; Chaurasia & Frieda Rosin, 2017; Chaurasia, Kodwani, Lachhwani, & Ketkar, 2018; Coccoli, Maresca, & Stanganelli, 2017; Dessì, Fenu, Marras, & Reforgiato Recupero, 2019; Dubey & Gunasekaran, 2015; Elia, Solazzo, Lorenzo, & Passiante, 2018; Hirashima, Supianto, & Hayashi, 2017; Lia & Zhaia, 2018; Liang, Yang, Wu, Li, & Zheng, 2016; Maldonado-Mahauad, Pérez-Sanagustín, Kizilcec, Morales, & Munoz-Gama, 2018; Muthukrishnan & Yasin, 2018; Nie et al., 2018; Oi et al., 2017; Roy & Singh, 2017; Sedkaoui & Khelfaoui, 2019; Shorfuzzaman et al., 2019; Su, Ding, Lue, Lai, & Su, 2017; Troisi, Grimaldi, Loia, & Maione, 2018; Veletsianos, Reich, & Pasquini, 2016; Yang & Du, 2016)
Modeling and educational Data WarehouseStudies that introduced big data modeling and analyzed big data tools (Hadoop) with data warehouses. It explored the cloud environment and cluster analysis for accessibility and processing of educational data.(Logica & Magdalena, 2015; Pardos, 2017; Petrova-Antonova, Georgieva, & Ilieva, 2017; Ramos, Machado, & Cordeiro, 2015; Santoso & Yulia, 2017; Wassan, 2015)
Improvement of the educational systemStudies that analyzed statistical tools, measurements, challenges, and ICT effectiveness. It emphasized on training and various implications. It introduced a ranking system and observes the usage of websites to improve the educational system.(Gupta & Rani, 2018; Martínez-Abad, Gamazo, & Rodríguez-Conde, 2018; Ong, 2015; Ozgur, Kleckner, & Li, 2015; Qiu, Huang, & Patel, 2015; Selwyn, 2014; Sooriamurthi, 2018; Sorensen, 2018; Zhang, 2015)
Integration of big data into the curriculumStudies that introduce big data topics into different courses and highlighted its implications for education.(Buffum et al., 2014; Dinter, Jaekel, Kollwitz, & Wache, 2017; Nelson & Pouchard, 2017; Sledgianowski, Gomaa, & Tan, 2017)