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Table 2 Full List of Challenges of Adaptive Learning by Dimensions and Categories

From: Challenges and contexts in establishing adaptive learning in higher education: findings from a Delphi study

  Swiss universitySouth African university
1. Infrastructure, hard- and software
1.1. Usability XX
1.2. Learning analytics XX
1.3. Accessibility & availability of necessary technical/physical infrastructure XX
1.4. Flexible functions of LMS & adaptive learning systems XX
1.5. Robustness of IT environment X 
1.6. Robustness of adaptive learning system X 
1.7. Affordable private internet access  X
1.8. Internet access & internet quality on campus  X
1.9. Availability of low cost hard- & software for students  X
2. Perceptions and beliefs about adaptive technology (lecturers and students)
2.1. Acceptance of technology XX
2.2. Recognising advantages of adaptive learning X 
2.3. Negative attitude towards technology  X
Teaching and Learning
3. Instructional and curriculum elements   
3.1. Adaptive learning pedagogy XX
3.2. Shift to adaptive teaching and learning XX
3.3. (Re) designing instructional materials and courses X 
3.4. Meaningful combination of classroom & online instructions in “blended learning” models X 
3.5 Online communication & interaction X 
3.6. Source of adaptation in adaptive courses X 
3.7. Creating communities of practice (CoP) for adaptive learning  X
3.8. New learning approaches (e.g., collaborative, interactive, problem- & inquiry-based learning)  X
4. Lecturer characteristics
4.1. Need for professional development XX
4.2. Commitment & motivation to adopt adaptive learning X 
4.3. High staff workload  X
4.4. Developing digital literacy skills  X
4.5. Changing lecturers’ roles  X
5. Learner characteristics   
5.1. Developing self-regulated learning skills XX
5.2. Developing digital literacy & media skills XX
5.3. Commitment & motivation to new learning approaches X 
6. Institutional strategies   
6.1. Institutional commitment to adaptive learning XX
6.2. Further development of the “Distance University” strategy X 
6.3. Advancing digital equity  X
6.4. Efficient strategy for adaptive learning  X
7. Management   
7.1. Providing technical & didactical support to lecturers XX
7.2. Providing support & training to students XX
7.3. Developing project management skills & ensuring quality XX
7.4. Participative implementation of adaptive learning XX
7.5. Forming required competences & expertise in staff X 
7.6. Financial incentives for adaptive learning activities X 
7.7. Clarifying roles of persons involved in the implementation process X 
7.8. Agile, successive implementation of adaptive learning X 
7.9. Changing teaching culture  X
7.10 Hiring instructional designers  X
8. Resources   
8.1. Providing personnel & financial resources XX
8.2. Time requirements for implementing adaptive learning XX
8.3. Increasing efficiency in the utilisation of adaptive courses X 
8.4. ROI: research on effectiveness of adaptive courses X 
8.5. Dedicating IT staff for adaptive learning projects  X