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Table 7 Possible Barriers in Teachers’ Adoption of Smartphones in Higher Education

From: A qualitative exploration of teachers’ perspective on smartphones usage in higher education in developing countries

CategoryActivityNo. of RespondentsPercentage of RespondentsExample of Quotations
Lack of Training/SupportDon’t know many functionalities of Smartphones940%Respondent # 14: “I feel I know very little about Smartphone functions. There should be a hands on training to educate faculty on how to use Smartphones in formal and informal learning.”
Lack of knowledgeDon’t know how to use Smartphones in promoting formal and informal learning1047%Respondent # 6: “I don’t have much idea about using Smartphones in promoting learning in higher education. The success stories of Smartphone usage in Higher Education should be shared with every faculty member to motivate them to use this sophisticated gadget.”
Time constraintsUsing technology puts additional time constraints on already overburdened university faculty940%Respondent # 17: “Faculty members in Higher Education are already overburdened and asking them to use Smartphones for academic purposes will put an extra burden on them.”
Lack of IncentivesNo difference among the users and non-users of technology in terms of awards and recognition733%Respondent # 9: “… there is no difference among those using technology and those who are not using it in terms of rewards and recognition. Use of technology in Higher Education demands extra time and effort which should be compensated in terms of awards and rewards.”
Technological ConstraintsSmall screen size940%Respondent # 12: “I am not very much comfortable in reading text on small screen of Smartphones. Also data entry using its small keyboard is troublesome for me.”
Small keyboard1253%