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Table 1 Design, Implementation and Assessment phases associated with interaction frameworks. Source: Designed by authors based on the literature review

From: Interaction in computer supported collaborative learning: an analysis of the implementation phase

 Design phaseImplementation phaseAssessment phase
Instructor-content interactionDesigning/selecting problem/project connected to course competencesRevises student’s reactions to course contentsAssociates learning outcomes to course goals/contents
Addresses to new content or clarifications when necessary
Selects documentation/sources of information
Associates expected learning outcomes to task
Defines formative collaborative assessment
Scripts collaboration, defining expected group exchange and group formation process
Instructor -interface interactionSelects tools to promote teacher-student and student-student exchangesMakes sure tools are promoting the expected kind of interactionMakes sure tools allow for peer and process assessment as well as for final product display
Makes sure tools allow observation of group processes
Instructor –learner interactionFeeds the design/redesign process based on student’s course assessmentInstructor makes sure collaboration script, documentation and interface are understoodInstructor:
Promotes peer-assessment and process- assessment, individually and in groups
Observes interaction
Offers support (cognitive/social levels)Integrates process and peer assessment with task results
Learner expects instructor to be observing and to intervene when necessaryIntegrates cognitive and social competences
Asks for support (cognitive/social levels)Learner returns peer and group assessment; evaluates course design and course experience
Learner-content interactionFeeds the redesign process through course assessmentAnalyzes collaboration script, documentation Links the problem to course contents and competencesAssociates assessment description to interaction expectations and learning outcomes
Makes an effort to understand task goal and expectationsAnalyzes what is expected of students in the assessment process
Learner-interface InteractionFeeds the redesign process through course assessmentFamiliarizes with course structureMakes sure tools allow for peer and process assessment as well as for final product display
Figures out how tools will sustain teacher-student and student-student exchanges
Learner-learner interactionFeeds the redesign process through course assessmentGroup formation processInformal exchange on the perceived process
Feeds the redesign process, based on instructor’s analysis of learner-learner interactionEstablish a social contact Define strategies to solve the problemPeer-assessment return
Interact to reach the goal (organization)
Interact to provide an answer (cognitive)
Interact as peers (social)