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Table 1 Design, Implementation and Assessment phases associated with interaction frameworks. Source: Designed by authors based on the literature review

From: Interaction in computer supported collaborative learning: an analysis of the implementation phase


Design phase

Implementation phase

Assessment phase

Instructor-content interaction

Designing/selecting problem/project connected to course competences

Revises student’s reactions to course contents

Associates learning outcomes to course goals/contents

Addresses to new content or clarifications when necessary

Selects documentation/sources of information

Associates expected learning outcomes to task

Defines formative collaborative assessment

Scripts collaboration, defining expected group exchange and group formation process

Instructor -interface interaction

Selects tools to promote teacher-student and student-student exchanges

Makes sure tools are promoting the expected kind of interaction

Makes sure tools allow for peer and process assessment as well as for final product display

Makes sure tools allow observation of group processes

Instructor –learner interaction

Feeds the design/redesign process based on student’s course assessment

Instructor makes sure collaboration script, documentation and interface are understood


Promotes peer-assessment and process- assessment, individually and in groups

Observes interaction

Offers support (cognitive/social levels)

Integrates process and peer assessment with task results

Learner expects instructor to be observing and to intervene when necessary

Integrates cognitive and social competences

Asks for support (cognitive/social levels)

Learner returns peer and group assessment; evaluates course design and course experience

Learner-content interaction

Feeds the redesign process through course assessment

Analyzes collaboration script, documentation Links the problem to course contents and competences

Associates assessment description to interaction expectations and learning outcomes

Makes an effort to understand task goal and expectations

Analyzes what is expected of students in the assessment process

Learner-interface Interaction

Feeds the redesign process through course assessment

Familiarizes with course structure

Makes sure tools allow for peer and process assessment as well as for final product display

Figures out how tools will sustain teacher-student and student-student exchanges

Learner-learner interaction

Feeds the redesign process through course assessment

Group formation process

Informal exchange on the perceived process

Feeds the redesign process, based on instructor’s analysis of learner-learner interaction

Establish a social contact Define strategies to solve the problem

Peer-assessment return

Interact to reach the goal (organization)

Interact to provide an answer (cognitive)

Interact as peers (social)