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Table 3 Discriminant validity analysis

From: The roles of academic engagement and digital readiness in students’ achievements in university e-learning environments

Latent dimensions AVE Fornell-Larcker HTMT
AP AE DR EA ET AP AE DR EA ET
Academic performance (AP)a 1.000 1.000         
Academic engagement (AE) 0.601 0.303 0.775     0.331    
Digital readiness (DR) 0.668 0.086 0.310 0.817    0.094 0.366   
E-learning adoption (EA) 0.785 0.105 0.207 0.260 0.886   0.115 0.246 0.295  
E-learning attitude (ET) 0.834 0.021 0.143 0.238 0.454 0.913 0.026 0.160 0.267 0.502
  1. The bold numbers in the diagonal row represent the square roots of the AVE
  2. HTMT Heterotrait-monotrait ratio
  3. aSingle-item construct