Skip to main content

Table 2 Descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s alpha, composite reliability, and average variance extracted

From: The roles of academic engagement and digital readiness in students’ achievements in university e-learning environments

Constructs Item Mean Standard Deviation Cronbach’s alpha Composite Reliability AVE
1. Academic engagement (AE) AE1 3.11 1.06 0.833 0.883 0.601
AE2 3.27 1.04    
AE3 3.22 1.05    
AE4 3.54 0.99    
AE5 3.20 0.98    
2. E-learning adoption (EA) EA1 2.93 1.18 0.864 0.916 0.785
EA2 2.56 1.26    
EA3 3.05 1.31    
3. E-learning attitude (ET) ET1 3.31 1.03 0.934 0.953 0.834
ET2 3.31 1.00    
ET3 3.19 0.98    
ET4 3.34 0.96    
4. Digital readiness (DR) DR1 3.84 0.88 0.833 0.889 0.668
DR2 3.79 1.01    
DR3 3.98 0.90    
DR4 3.90 0.94    
5. Academic achievement (GPA) GPA 7.14 1.01 1.000 1.000 1.000