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Table 4 Records screened by a two-step revised protocol (n = 31)

From: Higher education dominance and siloed knowledge: a systematic review of flipped classroom research

(Study number)
Author details
Cited by Year Setting
Subject area,
Education level
Focus Theoretical underpinnings Methods Outcomes
(1) Strayer 142 2012 USA
Statistics Education
How the learning environment of an inverted introductory statistics classroom compares to the learning environment of a more traditional lecture-homework introduction to statistics classroom
Inform teaching practice and suggest implications for structuring productive classroom learning communities.
Knowledge space theory
A learning environment framework
Mixed-methods: qualitative and quantitative
Experimental study: CUCEI instrument
28 and 27 students, one semester
Study of researcher’s own teaching practice
Concludes that students with the flipped classroom model are less satisfied with how classroom structure orients them to the learning tasks in the course, but are more open to cooperative learning and innovative teaching methods.
(2) Tucker 121 2012 USA
Historical description of development of flipped classroom approach None N/A Reflects on who will control the tools and how their potential can be developed.
(3) McLaughlin, Roth, Glatt, Gharkholonarehe, Davidson, Griffin, Esserman & Mumper 84 2014 USA
Pharmaceutical Education
Describe the philosophy and methodology used to redesign a basic pharmaceutics course and outline the research conducted to investigate the outcomes the project
Provide a guideline for instructors and educational programs seeking to develop, implement, and evaluate innovative and practical strategies to transform students’ learning experience
Student-centred learning
Problem-based learning
Inquiry-oriented strategies
Active learning pedagogy
162 students/2nd year/1 course/13 weeks/multiple campuses
Experimental study: Pre-and post course surveys
Claims that class attendance, student learning and the perceived value of this model all increased after participation in the flipped classroom approach.
Concludes that the approach for enhancing learning and foster students for coming health care needs warrants careful consideration for educators.
(4) Mason, Shuman & Cook 81 2013 USA
Engineering Education
Compare the effectiveness of an Inverted classroom (IC) to a traditional classroom with regard to: Content coverage, student performance on traditional quizzes, exam problems, student observations and perception of the IC format Active, cooperative and problem-based learning
Learning styles and preferences
Two year-study: Traditional classroom (TC) used 1st year, IC 2nd year, 20 students each year, 10 week courses
Control-treatment experiment comparing an IC to a TC
Argues that the IC approach compared to a traditional approach allowed the instructor to cover more material and that students in IC performed as well or better on comparable quizzes, exam questions and on open-ended design problems. While students initially struggled with the new approach, they adapted quickly and found the IC format to be satisfactory and effective.
(5) Gannod, Burge & Helmick 72 2008 USA
Software Engineering Education
Higher Education (HE)
Sharing experiences of using the inverted classroom model on a few pilot courses Cooperative, collaborative, active learning
Learning theory essentials: the ideal learning situation is customized, provides immediate feedback, is constructive, motivates students to persist, and builds enduring conceptual structures
Pilot study/24 students/Computing course
Comparisons between traditional and inverted classroom models
Their experiences suggest how different courses from the Software Engineering 2004 Model Curriculum Volume can incorporate the flipped classroom approach.
(6) Prober & Khan 50 2013 USA
Medical Education
Propose a new model for medical education based on the “flipped classroom” design to meet the digitally empowered learner, an expansion of biomedical knowledge and increased specialisation within the practice Building a framework of core knowledge
Embedding knowledge through interactive formats. Encouraging in-depth pursuit of specific knowledge failure of skin-deep learning (Alberts, Science)
141 respondents, 1st and 2nd year students Identifies a need to define a core curriculum that can meet digitally competent learners. Suggests interactive exercises for enhancing the relevance and retention of students’ knowledge and facilitation of in-depth learning fuelled by individual students’ aptitude and passion.
(7) Davies, Dean & Ball 45 2013 USA
Information Systems
Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course Make reference to approaches of computer-aided differentiated instruction, flipped and blended learning models, for improving student learning Pre, −post test quasi-experimental method on student achievement within one course A technology-enhanced flipped classroom was suggested to both be effective and scalable, and better facilitate learning than the simulation based training. Students also found this approach to be more motivating since it allowed for greater differentiation of instruction.
(8) Missildine, Fountain, Summers, & Gosselin 43 2013 USA
Adult health nursing courses
The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of FC approach on nursing students compared with a control group. No, theoretical underpinning. A hybrid approach by implementing technologies measured by examination average and students’ satisfaction is mentioned. Quasi experimental design: comparing 3 approaches to learning
1. Traditional lectures
2. Lectures and lectures capture back-up
3. FC approach
Two adult health nursing courses
Concludes that students were less satisfied with the flipped classroom method than with either of the other methods. Suggests that blending new teaching technologies with interactive classroom activities can result in improved learning but not necessarily improved student satisfaction.
(9) Pierce & Fox 43 2012 USA
Pharmaceutical Education
To implement a “flipped classroom” model for a renal pharmacotherapy topic module and assess the impact on students’ performance and attitudes Transition of students from passive receptacles of information into active learners
A process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) activity was used, based on a constructivist theory of learning
Design experiment, 8 week course, 71 students
Experimental study: pre and post tests/group comparisons
Claims improved student performance and favourable student perceptions with the instructional approach, which includes student-mediated contact with the course material prior to classes, benchmarking and formative assessments administered during the module, and the interactive class activities.
(10) Tune, Sturek & Basil 42 2013 USA
Cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology course
Assess the effectiveness of a FC approach compared to a control group None Measuring test scores on exams
Opinion surveys
27 students
Concludes that within a comparable group of graduate students, participants in the flipped course scored significantly higher. Exam averages for students in specific flipped course modules also tended to be higher. Student surveys implied that the use of homework and in-class quizzes were critical for motivation and likely contributed to the increase in student exam performance.
(11) Mehta, Hull, Young & Stoller 42 2013 USA, Canada
Reviews innovations in learning (exemplified by a massive open online course (MOOC), Flipped classrooms, digital badges, challenging higher education and describe a new vision and model for medical education Make reference to studies describing problems within medical education and that students lack feedback on clinical training N/A Presents a vision for competency-based learner-centered medical education that can better meet the needs of the health care system.
(12) Enfield 36 2013 USA
Undergraduate Multimedia course
Investigate the effectiveness of a FC –approach None Survey data of 50 students opinions on the effectiveness of a FC approach Based on student reports the study suggest that the FC approach provided an engaging learning experience that was effective in helping students to learn the content and increased their self-efficacy in their ability to learn independently.
(13) Goodwin 36 2013 USA
K-12 School
Reflection paper on how flipped classroom model might improve student-teacher interaction, feedback, homework, engagement and self-paced learning Refer to the lack of research and some preliminary non scientific data (from for example the Flipped learning network) N/A N/A
(14) Ferreri & O’Connor 35 2013 USA
Pharmaceutics course
Describe the redesign of a large lecture-based course into a small-group case-based course based on pre-readings and study guides as education exercises Make references to studies oriented towards student-centered and active learning, small-group and team-based learning Assessment based on a two-year period, comparisons of students’ grades and satisfaction ratings in course evaluations Concludes that compared to student experiences in a previous large lecture-based class, students in the smaller-class format reported a preference for working in teams. Students also achieved significantly better academic grades with the new course format.
(15) Pierce & Fox 33 2012 USA
Report from a flipped classroom experiment using video lecture podcasts and in-class patient case discussion as exercises within a renal pharmacotherapy module Process-oriented guided inquiry learning and students’ active learning make instruction more efficient and improve student learning Design experiment, pre- and post-tests of student outcomes and motivations and comparisons between student groups. Claims that the flipped classroom model resulted in improved student performance and positive student attitudes towards the experience.
(17) Lage, Platt & Treglia 33 2000 USA
Economics Education
Reflections on developing a inverted classroom Philosophical foundation: Internet provides students with an excellent complement, not substitute, not heir in-class efforts Sharing experiences of working with a website with four distinct components and their affordances Suggests that Internet-based studies provide students with an excellent complement not substitute to their in-class efforts, and can reach a more diverse student population.
(18) Kim, Kim, Khera & Getman 31 2014 USA
Engineering, sociology, humanities
Building on the RCOI framework, this study aimed to investigate participants’ perceived values of the flipped classrooms with respect to the RCOI components and to elaborate a design framework from which design principles for the flipped classrooms could be specified. Revised Community of Inquiry (RCOI): cognitive, social, teaching and learner presence. Mixed research methods: student survey, student interview, instructor reflection (115 students) Proposes nine design principles for the FC classroom on the basis of the design framework that emerged from the data.
(19) Critz & Knight 29 2013 USA
Evaluation of how good FC -approach is on students motivation None Survey data of 20 students opinions on the students’ satisfaction Reports positive outcomes of the flipped classroom model, which included online quizzes and intensive in class-learning activities such as case studies, role-playing and group problem-solving exercises.
(20) Flumerfelt & Green 29 2013 USA
To provide a broad overview of the need for schools to reform School reform theories by using car industry reforming models (Lean) None. Provide reflections on the implications of using Lean as a model for school development Reflects on an example of a school projects which showed how continuous improvement changed the traditional use of time on task for instruction and created new opportunities for focusing on the process of learning and summative assessment work, operationalized through the use of screencast technology as instructional technology improvement.
(22) Fulton 28 2012 USA
K-2 school
Report on a school initiative on flipping the classroom with improved results in algebra. Presents 10 reasons for adopting the model. None Test scores are referred to. N/A
(23) Wilson 27 2013 USA
Undergraduate statistics course
Evaluation of how the FC approach affects student motivation Fink’s (2003) taxonomy of foundational knowledge
Concepts used: application, integration, human dimension, caring and learning how to learn
Open-ended questions, course grade measurement
20–25 students
over 4 semesters.
Results show that performance, as measured by final grades and performance on exams, was significantly higher in the flipped course. Although many of the new education strategies were successful, some students perceived their increased personal responsibility negatively.
(24) McLaughlin, Griffin, Esserman, Davidson, Glatt, Roth, Gharkholonarehe & Mumper 27 2013 USA
Pharmacy education
To determine if flipping a traditional basic pharmaceutics course would improve student academic performance, engagement, and perception. Transactional distance theory “which defines transactional distance as a psychological and communication gap between the instructor and learner formed by psychological distance”
Implicit psychological theories, which may support ideas of students “engagement”, “motivation”, and “critical thinking”.
22 satellite students on 2 different campuses.
A survey was administered at the beginning and at the end of the flipped course.
Both qualitative and quantitative analysis
Suggests that thoughtful course design, enriched dialogue, and promotion of learner autonomy can enhance the quality of satellite students’ experiences in a flipped basic pharmaceutics course.
(25) Love, Hodge, Grandgenett, & Swift 26 2014 USA
Mathematics, computer science, engineering
Compare the effectiveness of two specific instructional models – traditional lecture and a flipped model None Survey
Student exams
(55 students)
Students in the flipped classroom had a more significant increase between the sequential exams compared to the students in the traditional lecture section, while performing similarly in the final exam. The survey indicated that the flipped classroom students were very positive about their experience in the course, and particularly appreciated the student collaboration and instructional video components.
(26) Porter, Bailey-Lee & Simon 24 2013 USA
Computer Science
Evaluating 10 years of instruction of 4 different courses spanning 16 Peer Instruction (PI) course instances. Peer instruction and student feedback as student-centred teaching methods improve learning Conducts a post-hoc, in-situ study of PI adoption in four different courses based on student success and fail rates over 10 years Claims that the adoption of the PI methodology in the classroom reduces fail rates. For the same instructor teaching the same course, PI was found decreasing the fail rate.
(28) Bergmann & Sams 20 2012 USA
K-12, HE
Reflecting on FC –approach by focusing the f-to-f time in classroom Student centered approach Argumentative reflections Argues that flipped learning has great potential to positively affect student learning. Suggest that it is more than just a trend in education and is gaining momentum, already making a difference for students.
(29) Abeysekera, & Dawson 19 2015 USA
Provide a catch-all definition for the flipped classroom and attempt to retrofit it with a pedagogical rationale, articulated through six testable propositions Theoretical model development Self-determination theory: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
A cognitive load perspective
Construct a theoretical argument that flipped approaches might improve student motivation and help manage cognitive load.
(30) Baepler, Walker, & Driessen 19 2014 USA
Examines the effect of reducing seat time of a large lecture chemistry class by two-thirds and conducting it in an active learning classroom rather than a traditional amphitheater. Active and blended learning Experimental design, control group
Standardized multiple-choice exam
Demonstrated that in an active learning classroom, student faculty contact could be reduced by two-thirds and students achieved learning outcomes that were at least as good, and in one comparison significantly better than, those in a traditional classroom. Student perceptions of the learning environment were improved. This suggests that active learning classrooms are a more efficient use of physical space.
(31) Lockwood & Esselstein 19 2013 USA
Reports on an inverted classroom pilot in linear algebra and introductory programming classes. Make reference to inverted and inquiry-based models, inspired by intelligent tutoring systems and assessment techniques Informal data (online surveys, course evaluations and student demonstrations) from one course of 231 students in introductory programming during the 2011–2012 academic year was collected. Preliminary results show students’ appreciation of the inverted classroom model. In the course experiment an e-workbook was produced which is freely available.
(32) Smith 19 2013 USA
The FC approach was implemented in two courses.
Report the results of surveys of students’ attitudes towards various aspects of the FC approach.
None, or implicit Anonymous student survey at the end of the course.
Students were asked to agree/disagree with statements regarding their attitude towards various aspects of the FC approach.
Likert-type scale (1 to 5)
Based on survey results, the study indicates that students perceived the FC approach advantageous in multiple ways, even though it was perceived to be a time burden.
(33) Gilboy, Heinerichs, & Pazzaglia 16 2015 USA
Health education/nutrition course
to illustrate how to implement the flipped classroom and to describe students’ perceptions of this approach within 2 undergraduate nutrition courses. “sage on the stage” to “guide on the side” (King, 2013) – constructivist theory of learning.
Bloom’s taxonomy
Intervention and redesign of traditionally delivered course to blended course using flipped classroom as instructional approach.
Development of a template that enabled faculty to design before, during, and after class activities and assessments based on objectives using all levels of Bloom’s taxonomy.
Used on 148 students
Student surveys
The majority of the 142 students completing the evaluation preferred the flipped method compared with traditional pedagogical strategies. The process described in the report was successful for both faculty and students.
(35) Chen, Wang, Kinshuk, & Chen 15 2014 “Holistic flipped classroom” environment
Develop a model that can provide a foundation for further research and practice for flipped learning in HE. Learning by doing (Dewey)
Learning by networking
Implementation of FLIPPED model
Student surveys
Computer system log analysis
Findings demonstrated that the proposed model was effective; students reported that they were satisfied with the course, their attendance improved, and their study efforts increased. Results also suggested that the transactional distance changed during the learning process: highly motivated students performed much better than less motivated students.
Reflections have culminated in various examples, guidelines, and suggestions for practitioners as they consider their own design, implementation, and adoption.