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Table 4 Descriptive and inferential statistics of students exposed to only high-school physics courses and students with undergraduate physics courses

From: Undergraduate students’ conceptual interpretation and perceptions of haptic-enabled learning experiences

  Pretest Posttest Gain = posttest – pretest
Category Mean Std. dev. Mean Std. dev. Mean gain t p-value
Undergraduate-physics (n = 22) 5.59 2.08 6.82 1.79 1.22 3.029 0.006
High-school physics (n = 8) 4.25 1.75 7.62 1.68 3.37 4.473 0.003