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Table 1 Selected papers covering FC research related to the pandemic and online delivery (January 2020–July 2021)

From: Flipped classrooms in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic: findings and future research recommendations

Author(s), year Context Field and Level of HE Type of research Sample—if applicable Main findings related to FC during the COVID-19 pandemic
Attarabeen et al., (2021) USA students Pharmacy undergraduate and graduate Comparative research quantitative 192 (2018) 66 (2020) FC was used before and during the pandemic. Student-perceived stress did not increase during online, remote learning associated with the pandemic. Additionally, datasets showed no significant differences in coping behavior, self-efficacy or emotional status
Collado-Valero et al., (2021) Spain teachers Education science Comparative research quantitative 45 The results revealed an increase in the implementation of FC during the pandemic. Teachers considered that the circumstances encouraged the implementation of FC
Dapper et al., (2020) Germany students Medical education (radiation oncology) graduate Case-study research mixed 125 Traditional teaching methods were largely accepted by students, but opinions on the application of alternative teaching methods or e-learning formats, in particular on the application of FC method, differed widely
Durfee et al., (2020) USA students Medical education (radiology) graduate Action research mixed 111 Virtual radiology core clerkship design included online FC modules and this was shown to be successful, since student performance on the standardized final exam was similar to the in-person teaching
Feijóo et al., (2021) Spain, Peru students Engineering undergraduate Action research mixed 220 Authors concluded that the flipped teaching methods implemented by them during the pandemic shift to remote teaching suffered less than other classical teaching approaches, not only with regards to lectures but also to the outcomes
Hoshang et al., (2021) UAE students and teachers Information systems and Engineering undergraduate Action research mixed 300 students and 10 teachers Students and teachers were in favor of FC usage, but not strongly and without criticism. More training in the tools and concepts of FC is required. Students in FC achieve significantly higher evaluated and assessed learning outcomes than students in traditional classrooms and are equally satisfied with the learning environment
Jia et al., 2021 China students Education postgraduate Community of inquiry mixed 49 Online flipped course participants performed as well as their counterparts in the conventional flipped learning format, and students’ interest levels remained constantly high throughout the online flipped classes. Analyses suggest five key factors that promote their engagement in the online flipped classes (interaction, active learning with feedback, supported problem-centric learning, teaching variation and teacher attributes)
Martinelli et al., (2021) USA residents Medical education (Anesthesiology) postgraduate Non-empirical (narrative) qualitative na There is growing evidence that the FC is preferred by learners and may increase knowledge gain. FC works well with learning management systems to disseminate focused pre-class work
Latorre-Cosculluela et al., (2021) Spain students Across the university undergraduate and graduate Action research quantitative 376 Students agreed on the benefits and effectiveness that learning with FC has on the development of twenty-first century skills for their personal and professional life. Students who took part in FC during the pandemic perceived the effects of FC on the development of competences related to “fun and learning “, “collaboration with the classmates “ and “learning from/with the classmates “ as less strong
Lee, (2020) Korea students and teachers Chemistry undergraduate Non-empirical case-study qualitative na During the pandemic, students prefer asynchronous lectures to real-time lectures. Flipped learning was used to increase the engagement of students. Korean students asked more questions in online lectures compared to f2f
Liberman-Martin and Ogba, (2020) USA Chemistry undergraduate Case-study mixed 55 Instructors found that the video-based flipped approach was readily portable to remote instruction without structural changes. During online learning students were comfortable engaging with the material, but largely uncomfortable with engaging using their microphones in the main class or breakout rooms
Liu et al., (2020) China students Vocational HE (digital video production) undergraduate Case-study mixed 129 The online flipped blended teaching mode adopted in a course improves the online learning effect on students, their autonomous learning ability and problem-solving ability, and improves their interest in learning
Nepal and Rogerson, (2020) Australia Economics undergraduate Semi-SLR qualitative na There are clear qualitative and pedagogical benefits from flipping the economics classroom, especially in introductory courses
Portela, (2020) Portugal students Engineering (computer science) undergraduate Case-study quantitative 180 Students were satisfied (81%) with interactivity that combines FC with PBL, game-based learning, BYOD
Schmitz et al., (2021) Germany students Medical education undergraduate Quasi-experiment quantitative 58 The integration of the WBL and FC approaches was researched and proved feasible for surgical education of undergraduates
Tang et al., (2020) China students Engineering undergraduate Action research, comparative study quantitative 11,579 Students were dissatisfied with online learning in general, and especially with communication. The combined model of online teaching with flipped learning improved students’ learning, attention, and evaluation of courses. Authors claimed that in courses with difficult theories and abstract formulas, traditional teaching showed its superiority
Veldthuis et al., (2020) Netherlands students ICT undergraduate Case study quantitative na Since the course already utilized FC before the pandemic, it was possible to give the course entirely online with minimal adjustments. Results showed that students' grades were similar to those before the pandemic and students even reported a higher level of satisfaction with the course when given remotely
Wang and Chen, (2020) China students and teachers Across the higher vocational colleges Comparative study quantitative 262 teachers and 986 students FC advantage is the flexible timing for students, and the combination of asynchronous and synchronous enhances the quality of students-teacher interaction. The difficulty is that teachers should design asynchronous and synchronous delivery carefully, prepare rich resources, plan answering time etc