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Table 4 Paired-sample t-test to evaluate the difference between the student pre-test and post-test

From: Development of a course based on BEAM robots to enhance STEM learning in electrical, electronic, and mechanical domains

Domain Paired differences (Shift mean) t
Electrical − 1.300 − 8.106
Electronic − 1.552 − 9.423
Mechanics − 1.200 − 3.562
Computational thinking − 0.444 − 1.526
Recycling of WEEEs − 1.033 − 3.439
Five domains − 1.230 − 12.556
  1. At the 5% significance level, the data provides sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean of the post-test is higher than the mean of the pre-test with exception computational thinking domain that presented  a p > 0.05 (p = 0.065), so that there was no significant change between the pre-and post-test for this domain