Skip to main content

Table 6 Differences in cognitive engagement reflected in students’ posts

From: Effects of using mobile instant messaging on student behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement: a quasi-experimental study

Dimension Code MIM AOD
Operation Sharing information 83 (24%) 76 (41%)
Seeking information 3 (1%) 0
  Subtotal 86 (25%) 76 (41%)
Wayfinding Commenting without elaboration 47 (13%) 3 (2%)
Requesting elaboration 20 (6%) 9 (5%)
Providing elaboration 32 (9%) 3 (2%)
Summarizing 16 (5%) 6 (3%)
  Subtotal 115 (33%) 21 (12%)
Sense-making Analyzing 19 (5%) 5 (3%)
Evaluating 35 (10%) 27 (15%)
  Subtotal 54 (15%) 32 (18%)
Innovation Reflecting 65 (18%) 47 (26%)
Creating 32 (9%) 8 (4%)
  Subtotal 97 (27%) 55 (30%)
  Total 352 (100%) 184 (100%)