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Table 5 Survey results of course interaction and satisfaction and comparison between two groups

From: Effects of using mobile instant messaging on student behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement: a quasi-experimental study

Group M (SD) Mdn Mean rank Min Max Statistical test results
Mann–Whitney U Wilcoxon W Z Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
Students’ peer interaction
 MIM 20.9 (4.3) 21.5 22.0 7.0 25.0 229.500 439.500 − 0.890 0.374
 AOD 22.0 (3.5) 22.0 25.5 10.0 25.0
Student–teacher interaction
 MIM 20.9 (4.3) 21.0 20.6 6.0 25.0 201.500 411.500 − 1.502 0.133
 AOD 22.1 (3.5) 22.0 26.5 10.0 25.0
Course satisfaction
 MIM 21.0 (4.0) 21.0 20.7 8.0 25.0 201.000 411.000 − 1.518 0.129
 AOD 22.3 (3.5) 23.0 26.6 10.0 25.0
Overall evaluation
 MIM 62.8 (11.8) 64.0 20.6 21.00 75.0 202.500 412.500 − 1.463 0.143
 AOD 66.4 (10.2) 69.0 26.5 30.00 75.0