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Table 4 Differences in behavioral engagement

From: Effects of using mobile instant messaging on student behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement: a quasi-experimental study

Measurements MIM AOD
Number of students enrolled 26 29
 Number of students who participated in discussions 26 28
Number of messages 473 169
 On-task messages 321 169
 Interaction messages 186 47
Number of words in total 22,489 17,289
Participation rate 88.5% 69.5%
Task completion rate 81.4% 69.5%
Interaction rate 51.7% 23.1%