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Table 3 Analytical framework of cognitive engagement

From: Effects of using mobile instant messaging on student behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement: a quasi-experimental study

Code Definition Example
Operation
 Sharing information Providing an opinion or information “I will prepare more videos to share with the class when things get boring.”
 Seeking information Proposing of an original question “The speaker only shared the first two points. Does anyone know the last three points?”
Wayfinding
 Commenting without elaboration Commenting on others’ ideas without elaboration “Your sharing is very interesting!”
 Requesting elaboration Requesting for more information or inviting discussion “I am wondering if there [are] any good examples to teach different levels of students.”
 Providing elaboration Adding explanation or justification of one’s own ideas (After proposing a solution). “If adults are feeling sleepy in class, they must be really tired.”
 Summarizing Summarizing knowledge with little evaluation “I agree with my previous classmates’ ideas, such as instant Q&A from A; separate tasks from B, and a change in topics from C.”
Sense-making
 Analyzing Analyzing essential features, comparison, and reasons “The discrepancy between staff needs and training requests was a key factor!”
 Evaluating Stating a stance with justification “Your suggestion is inspiring! Giving students more opportunities to talk could change passive listening into active participation!”
Innovation
 Reflecting Reflecting on one’s prior experience or learning outcomes “A big mistake I made was that I started with pronunciation and tried to teach from A to Z.”
 Creating Creating new ideas by making suggestions, extending understanding, and introducing new points or resources “You may initiate e-learning in a less formal setting such as a tutorial class and give teachers detailed examples of how e-learning works.”