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Table 1 Comparison of pre-class quiz scores between the two groups

From: Effects of using mobile instant messaging on student behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement: a quasi-experimental study

Group Number of participants M (SD) Mann–Whitney U Wilcoxon W Z Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
MIM 26 1.19 (1.44) 337.5 688.5 − 0.48 0.63
AOD 28 1.21 (1.13)