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Table 2 Comparison of gains scores between students who preferred online instruction versus those who preferred face-to-face (f2f) instruction for quality of instruction before and after the shift to remote learning

From: University students experience the COVID-19 induced shift to remote instruction

Item N M (SD) Welch p g*
Frequency of Communication with the Instructor Online 214
f2f 990
− .0607 (1.10952)
− 1.2111 (1.29901)
177.463  < .001 1.00
Helpfulness of Communication with the Instructor Online 213
f2f 989
.0282 (.90552)
− .9858 (1.23700)
190.526  < .001 .95
Action & Expression Online 212
f2f 989
− .0613 (.77338)
− .4692 (.91563)
45.335  < .001 .40
Engagement Online 211
f2f 986
.0379 (.93528)
1.1988 (.72731)
287.817  < .001 1.40
Representation Online 213
f2f 987
.6291 (1.04993)
.2057 (1.08524)
28.153  < .001 .48