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Table 1 Significant changes in reported quality of instruction before and after the shift to remote learning

From: University students experience the COVID-19 induced shift to remote instruction

Item N M (SD) t p g*
Poorer After the Transition
Frequency of Communication with the Instructor 1210 Before 2.14 (1.009)
After 3.02 (1.2720
26.069 < .001 .99
Helpfulness of Communication with the Instructor 1208 Before 2.10 (1.047)
After 2.73 (1.252)
22.498 < .001 .74
Action & Expression (Assessment in Different Ways) 1207 Before 1.90 (1.013)
After 2.17 (.970)
15.332 < .001 .45
Engagement 1202 Before 2.10 (.727)
After 1.35 (.616)
41.920 < .001 1.68
Better After the Transition
Representation (Presenting Content in Different Ways) 1206 Before 2.10 (.857)
After 1.78 (.864)
.8700 < .001 .30