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Table 5 Summary of the students’ and instructors’ perceptions of AI systems in online learning

From: The impact of artificial intelligence on learner–instructor interaction in online learning

Factor of learner–instructor interaction The impact of AI systems Students’ perceptions Instructors’ perceptions
Communication Quantity & Quality ( +) Students believe that the anonymity afforded by AI would make them less self-conscious and, as a result, allow them to ask more questions ( +) Instructors believe that AI could help answer simple, repetitive questions, which would allow them to focus on more meaningful communication with students
Responsibility ( −) Students worry that AI could give unreliable answers and negatively impact their grades ( −) Instructors predicted conflicts between students and the instructor due to AI-based misunderstandings or misleadingness
Support Just-in-time support ( +) Students believe that AI would support personalized learning experiences, particularly with studying and group projects ( +) Instructors believe AI could be effectively leveraged to help students receive just-in-time personalized support
Agency ( −) Students perceived that canned and standardized support from AI might have a negative influence on their ability to learn effectively ( −) Instructors are wary of the fact that too much support from AI could take away students' opportunities for exploration and discovery
Presence Connection ( +) Students believe that AI can address privacy concerns and support learner–instructor connections by providing social interaction cues without personal camera information ( +) Instructors believe that the addition of AI would help them become more aware of students’ needs
Surveillance ( −) Students are uncomfortable with the measurement of their unconscious behavior, such as eye tracking or facial expression analysis, because it feels like surveillance ( −) Instructors were negative about relying on AI interpretation to understand students’ social interaction cues
  1. ( +) indicates perceived benefit and ( −) indicates perceived concern