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Table 1 The five-factor model of learner–instructor interaction in online learning environments,

From: The impact of artificial intelligence on learner–instructor interaction in online learning

Factor of learner–instructor interaction Definition
Communication Instructional communication (Q & A) between learners and the instructor about topics directly related to learning contents
Support Instructional management by the instructor, including supporting learning materials and providing feedbacks directly related to learning contents
Presence Perceived connectivity between students and instructors during the online learning process
Guidance Guidance by the instructor through providing encouragement and positive reactions that are not directly related to learning contents
Social intimacy Social interaction by the instructor, such as introduction, greetings, and exchange of personal information that are not directly related to learning contents