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Table 2 Questionnaire scales, with item loading ranges and reliability

From: CAVE-based immersive learning in undergraduate courses: examining the effect of group size and time of application

Scale Loadings Cronbach’s α
Representational fidelity .810–.909 .833
Immediacy of control .823–.885 .866
Perceived usefulness .783–.931 .907
Perceived ease of use .649–.873 .755
Presence NA NA
Motivation component 1 .374–.829 .874
Motivation component 2 .341–.836  
Motivation component 3 .610–.793  
Motivation component 4 .434–.641  
Cognitive benefits .741–.866 .858
Control and active learning .736–.869 .796
Reflective thinking .784–.873 .825
Perceived learning effectiveness .698–.810 .889
Satisfaction .508–.854 .862
  1. NA = Not applicable, treated as single-item measurement