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Table 3 Results of structural model assessment

From: Instructional changes instigated by university faculty during the COVID-19 pandemic: the effect of individual, course and institutional factors

Independent variables Dependent variables Standardized causal effects T-statistics f2
Effect size
Direct Indirect Total
Individual factors Course factors 0.47   0.47 8.80*** 0.29
Instructional change 0.40 0.07 0.47 6.25*** 0.17
Course factors Instructional change 0.15   0.15 1.97* 0.02
Institutional factors Individual factors 0.23   0.23 3.55** 0.06
Course factors 0.11 0.11 0.22 1.90 n.s 0.02
Instructional change 0.12 0.13 0.25 1.87 n.s 0.17
  1. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, and *p < 0.05