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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of instructional change variables and mean differences by background variables of individual, course, and institutional factors

From: Instructional changes instigated by university faculty during the COVID-19 pandemic: the effect of individual, course and institutional factors

Change in M SD Correlation Mean Differences
Individual factors Course factors Institutional factors
1 2 3 Gender Age Teaching Exp Online teach Exp Course discipline Course size Course Obj Inst. Size Loaction Support org
1. Media/material 3.51 (70.1%) 1.02 (1) 0.68** 0.63** F > M t(197) = − 2.2* n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s
2. Practice/behavior 3.53 (70.5%) 1.11   (1) 0.76** n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s
3. Attitude/Understanding of teaching and learning 3.32 (66.5%) 1.18    (1) n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s N9 < N10, N30, N50, N100 F(4,196) = 3.75** n.s n.s n.s n.s
Change total 3.45 (69.1%) 0.98     n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s n.s
  1. n.s no significant difference, ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, and n.s. p > 0.05
  2. F female faculty members, M male faculty members, N9 class size with less than 10 students, N10 class size with 10–30 students, N30 class size with 31–50 students, N50 class size with 51–100 students, and N100 class size more than 100 students