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Table 8 Descriptive statistics of B1 Preliminary across four groups

From: Flipping an on-campus general English course: a focus on technology complexity of instruction and learners’ levels of impulsivity

Groups Pre-test Post-test
  M SD M SD
Mid-tech FI Total 10.840 4.412 27.920 3.463
  HI 9.000 3.464 27.750 2.052
  MI 13.000 6.260 28.000 4.898
  LI 11.000 3.633 28.000 3.714
Low-tech FI Total 12.280 4.578 22.320 8.204
  HI 11.416 4.981 20.250 7.569
  MI 11.333 3.559 23.666 8.164
  LI 14.571 4.391 24.714 9.569
Blended course Total 12.666 4.099 23.080 6.356
  HI 15.000 4.000 26.000 2.280
  MI 12.333 4.438 22.923 6.460
  LI 11.000 3.346 20.500 8.384
Control group Total 13.320 4.997 19.960 6.106
  HI 15.444 6.247 21.333 6.670
  MI 11.375 2.263 18.000 5.070
  LI 12.875 5.055 20.375 6.653
  1. HI  high impulsive, MI  moderate impulsive, LI  low impulsive (reflective)