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Table 3 Instructional materials for the flipped classes (based on Brown, 2018)

From: Flipping an on-campus general English course: a focus on technology complexity of instruction and learners’ levels of impulsivity

Criteria Continuums Low-tech FI Mid-tech FI
Sources High quality versus homemade Homemade Rather high quality
Teachers’ personal touch and presence in students’ out-of-classroom experience versus a curated blend of sources Personal touch Both personal touch and curated
Consistency and simplicity versus an engaging mix of media and formats Consistency and simplicity Mix of media
High tech versus low tech Low tech Mid tech
Video recordings Talking head video
Talking-head-style but with instructor writing on a whiteboard
Talking-head-style but with instructor seated at a desk
Talking-head-style but with instructor in conversation with colleague or another professional
Demo of an activity in appropriate setting
Supportive tools and formats Interactive learning objects built with specialized software
Text-based options (books, eBooks, pdf files, quizzes)
Platform A freestanding website
  An LMS
  Single-point access