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Table 3 The analysis dimensions and descriptions

From: Exploring the effect of three scaffoldings on the collaborative problem-solving processes in China’s higher education

Dimension Code Description Examples
Cognitive Superficial (KS) A participant simply shares information, presents (dis)agreement, asks questions, or seeks for clarifications, without explicit statement of his/her own ideas, arguments, or perspectives What does it mean…?
Yes, I agree with you
Medium (KM) A participant elaborates his/her own ideas, arguments, or perspectives without detailed explanations, supports of resources, statistics or personal experiences I feel like… it's just a different learning activity
Deep (KD) A participant explicitly elaborates his/her own ideas, arguments, or perspectives with detailed explanations, supports of resources, statistics or personal experiences I think students need to apply those knowledge in their lives in order to understand them…because the application process can help them make sense of…
Metacognitive Task understanding (TU) A participant activates previous knowledge of the task and contents, thinks about the purpose of the task, identifies what should be done for this task, reads and interprets the questions or instructions We need to define the concept of the topic first…
Goal setting and planning (GSP) A participant thinks about what documents and resources are needed, plans or divides the task, plans and discusses what to do next We're going to break it down into three dimensions…first, we need to…
Monitoring and reflection (MR) A participant monitors and evaluates the progress toward the criteria set for the task, evaluates the time schedule set for finishing the task; summarizes what has been done and what needs to be done Regarding this question, I think what we have done is still the same thing, we need to break out of that mindset
Behavioral Resource management (RM) A student searched, shared or read resources on the platform or through the Internet I find an article about our topic
This academic article is about……
Concept mapping (CM) A participant created, modified, or commented on the concept map Creating a concept map through huiyizhuo functions
Observation (OB) A participant moved the mouse over the platform to observe without any operations Moving the mouse over the huiyizhuo platform without speaking