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Table 3 Summary: conceptualisation of engagement

From: Synthesis of student engagement with digital technologies: a systematic review of the literature

Author(s) Conceptualisation Key constructs Key assumptions Examples
(Astin, 1984) the amount of physical and psychological energy that the student devotes to the academic experience Physical energy, psychological energy and academic experience Engagement refers to the investment of physical and psychological energy
Engagement occurs along a continuum
The engagement has both quantitative and qualitative features
The amount of student learning and development associated with an educational program is directly related to the quality and quantity of student engagement in that program
The effectiveness of any educational practice is directly related to the ability of that practice to increase student engagement
Devotes considerable energy to studying,
Spends much time on campus,
Participates actively
in student organizations,—frequently interacts with faculty members and other students
(Christenson et al., 2012) Student engagement refers to the student's active participation in academic and co‐curricular or school‐related activities, and commitment to educational goals and learning Active participation in learning, commitment to achieving educational goals Multidimensional construct
consists of behavioural, cognitive, and affective subtypes
Active participation
Similar to the one above
(Harper & Quaye, 2008) Participation in educationally effective practices, both inside and outside the classroom, which leads to a range of measurable outcomes Participation in the education process, In and out of class participation
Measurable outcomes
Students actively participate in academic tasks regardless of being in a formal learning environment
(Kuh, 2016) The time and energy undergraduates put forth in educationally purposeful activities combined with the policies, programs, and practices that institutions employ to induce students to put forth such effort Time and energy are given to learning, Institution Induced Time and energy
Educationally purposeful activities
Practices institutions employ to instigate students to exert effort
Students are responsible for their engagement, with the institution playing a part in providing the necessary environment for students to engage in
(Pekrun & Linnenbrink-Garcia, 2012) A multi-component construct, the common denominator is that all the components (i.e., types of engagement) comprise active, energetic, and approach-oriented involvement with academic tasks Active, energetic, thoughtful, involvement in learning active cognizant approach to academic tasks Students initiate their engagement and complete and participate in academic tasks due to this
(Coates, 2007) A broad construct intended to encompass salient academic as well as certain non-academic aspects of the student experience Academic and non-academic student experiences Academic challenge
Learning with peers
Experience with faculty
Campus environment
How the institution deploys its resources and other learning opportunities to get students to utilize their time and effort in these activities actively
(ACER, 2019) Students' involvement with activities and conditions likely to generate high-quality learning Student self-initiated involvement Academic challenge
Active learning
Student and staff interactions
Enriching educational experiences
Supportive learning environment
Work-integrated learning
Students actively interact with their learning environments in a manner that leads to learning
(Trowler, 2010) Interaction between the time, effort and other relevant resources invested by both students and their institutions Student and institution Investment in Time, effort and resources Student and the institution interrelated components How the institution deploys its resources and other learning opportunities to get students to utilize their time and effort in these activities actively
(Maguire et al., 2017) Engagement is a product of the broader social and cultural context and not just the student's attribute Students react to surroundings Social
Cultural context
Students react to the environment that is provided by the institution based on how the institution adapts its resources and teaching strategies to encourage participation
(Fredricks et al., 2004) Malleable meta construct that is presumed to be based on the individual and the context Individual and context-based It can be changed
Results from a variety of antecedents in the context, both social and academic, at both the school and classroom levels
Students engage based on what is availed to them
(Kahu, 2013) Four views:
Interrelates between student and institution Students and University play a critical role University and the student play a crucial role in student engagement with characteristics of both the university and the student as well as the relationship between the two is fundamental
(Filsecker & Kerres, 2014) The sustained effort invested by an individual to manage and implement his or her intention of pursuing a previously chosen goal and entails cognitive, emotional, and behavioural components that reflect the individual's volitional/post decisional state The sustained effort, self-imposed objectives The student is crucial in their engagement The students decide what to engage in
(Paulsen & McCormick, 2020) Student learning relates to time and effort in studies by students; students benefit from environments that are collegiate and support their success institutions and faculty can facilitate effective educational practices in and out of the classroom Time and effort from students, institutions set up effective educational practices to promote student success The student invests time and effort into their studies in a conducive environment, set up by the institution Students are responsible for investing in their engagement; the institution plays a part in providing the necessary environment for students to engage in
(Lawson, & Lawson, 2013) Engagement is conceptualized as a dynamic system of social and psychological constructs as well as a synergistic process Dynamic phenomenon, psychological and social, synergetic process Requires social and psychology investment in energy Collaborative, motivation to take part in the learning process