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Table 2 Regression results for agent persona

From: Does a pedagogical agent’s gesture frequency assist advanced foreign language users with learning declarative knowledge?

  Facilitation Credibility Human-likeness Engagement
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Enhanced gesture   0.140 (0.158)   0.087 (0.147)   0.033 (0.137)   0.056 (0.151)
Average gesture − 0.140 (0.158)   − 0.087 (0.147)   − 0.033 (0.137)   − 0.056 (0.151)  
No gesture − 0.832** (0.159) − 0.693** (0.159) − 0.626** (0.148) − 0.539** (0.149) − 0.731** (0.138) − 0.698** (0.138) − 0.835** (0.152) − 0.779** (0.153)
Age − 0.029 (0.029) − 0.029 (0.029) − 0.045 (0.027) − 0.045 (0.027) 0.017 (0.025) 0.017 (0.025) − 0.013 (0.028) − 0.013 (0.028)
Year − 0.097 (0.068) − 0.097 (0.068) − 0.041 (0.063) − 0.041 (0.063) − 0.135* (0.059) − 0.135* (0.059) − 0.118 (0.065) − 0.118 (0.065)
Gender − 0.122 (0.149) − 0.122 (0.149) − 0.005 (0.138) − 0.005 (0.138) − 0.123 (0.129) − 0.123 (0.129) − 0.269 (0.142) − 0.269 (0.142)
English major − 0.079 (0.148) − 0.079 (0.148) 0.065 (0.138) 0.065 (0.138) 0.037 (0.128) 0.037 (0.128) 0.214 (0.141) 0.214 (0.141)
Prior knowledge 1 0.202 (0.136) 0.202 (0.136) 0.220 (0.127) 0.220 (0.127) 0.312** (0.118) 0.312** (0.118) 0.186 (0.130) 0.186 (0.130)
Prior knowledge 2 0.020 (0.114) 0.020 (0.114) − 0.090 (0.106) − 0.090 (0.106) − 0.146 (0.099) − 0.146 099) − 0.052 (0.109) − 0.052 (0.109)
Prior knowledge 3 0.056 (0.106) 0.056 (0.106) − 0.022 (0.099) − 0.022 (0.099) − 0.170 (0.092) − 0.170 (0.092) − 0.025 (0.102) − 0.025 (0.102)
Constant 3.477** (0.659) 3.337** (0.667) 4.327** (0.614) 4.240** (0.622) 2.605** (0.572) 2.572** (0.579) 3.169** (0.631) 3.113** (0.639)
N 1540 1540 770 770 770 770 770 770
  1. Standard errors in parentheses, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01