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Table 4 The criteria for assessment of the measurement model

From: Explaining persistence in online courses in higher education: a difference-in-differences analysis

Validity and reliability Criteria References
Construct validity Loadings ≥ .70 Gerbing and Anderson (1988); Hair et al. (2012); Nunnally (1978)
Internal consistency Cronbach Alpha > .70
Composite reliability > .70
Hair et al. (2017)
Convergent validity Average variance extracted > .50 Fornell and Larcker (1981); Nunnally (1978)
Discriminant validity The square roots of the AVE > any other correlation between the constructs Fornell and Larcker (1981)