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Table 4 The criteria for assessment of the measurement model

From: Explaining persistence in online courses in higher education: a difference-in-differences analysis

Validity and reliability



Construct validity

Loadings ≥ .70

Gerbing and Anderson (1988); Hair et al. (2012); Nunnally (1978)

Internal consistency

Cronbach Alpha > .70

Composite reliability > .70

Hair et al. (2017)

Convergent validity

Average variance extracted > .50

Fornell and Larcker (1981); Nunnally (1978)

Discriminant validity

The square roots of the AVE > any other correlation between the constructs

Fornell and Larcker (1981)