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Table 3 Sources of the scales used in the study

From: Explaining persistence in online courses in higher education: a difference-in-differences analysis

Scales Sources
UTAUT model (performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and behavioral intention) Khechine and Lakhal (2018), Khechine et al. (2014), Lakhal (2019), Lakhal et al. (2013), Lakhal and Khechine (2016, 2017), Venkatesh et al. (2003)
Anxiéty Khechine and Lakhal (2018), Lakhal and Khechine (2021), Loyd and Gressard (1984), Loyd et al. (1987)
Employer encouragement Heilporn and Lakhal (in revision), Kember et al. (1992)
Engagement Brault-Labbé and Dubé (2010)
Satisfaction Lakhal et al. (2007, 2014)
Learning community Heilporn and Lakhal (2020)
Persistence Heilporn and Lakhal (2021), Joo et al. (2011), Lakhal (2019), Strevy (2009)