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Table 3 First-order measurement models

From: Gamification and active learning in higher education: is it possible to match digital society, academia and students' interests?

First-order measurement models (n = 132)
Control group (Group 1) and experimental group (Group 2)
Factor Loadings a AVE CRI Cronbach’s alpha
Block 1 – Students’ skills (SKI)   0.696 0.932 0.912
 SKI1 0.735    
 SKI2 0.721    
 SKI3 0.842    
 SKI4 0.891    
 SKI5 0.897    
 SKI6 0.899    
Block 2 – Students’ satisfaction (SAT)   0.836 0.910 0.810
 SAT1 0.880    
 SAT2 0.947    
First-order measurement models (n = 65)
Control group (Group 1)
Factor Loadings a AVE CRI Cronbach’s alpha
Block 1 – Students’ skills (SKI)   0.601 0.899 0.863
 SKI1 0.664    
 SKI2 0.600    
 SKI3 0.769    
 SKI4 0.878    
 SKI5 0.840    
 SKI6 0.858    
Block 2 – Students’ satisfaction (SAT)   0.812 0.896 0.779
 SAT1 0.856    
 SAT2 0.944    
First-order measurement models (n = 67)
Experimental group (Group 2)
Factor Loadings a AVE CRI Cronbach’s alpha
Block 1 – Students’ skills (SKI)   0.759 0.950 0.936
 SKI1 0.767    
 SKI2 0.792    
 SKI3 0.909    
 SKI4 0.901    
 SKI5 0.919    
 SKI6 0.925    
Block 2 – Students’ satisfaction (SAT)   0.867 0.929 0.848
 SAT1 0.917    
 SAT2 0.945    
  1. a To consider an indicator satisfactory for a measurement scale in PLS-SEM, the criterion provided by Chin (1998), Hair et al. (2016, 2017), and Hansen et al. (2013) is used
  2. AVE = average variance extracted; CRI = composite reliability index