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Table 2 Cronbach’s alpha, Rho A, Composite reliability and Average Variance Extracted (AVE) for the three constructs in the TAM model (Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU), and Behavioral Intention (BI) for each tool

From: Technology acceptance of four digital learning technologies (classroom response system, classroom chat, e-lectures, and mobile virtual reality) after three months’ usage

Tool Construct Cronbach’s alpha Rho A Composite reliability Average variance extracted
E-lectures PU 0.847 0.865 0.897 0.685
PEOU 0.935 0.944 0.953 0.836
BI 0.959 0.960 0.968 0.860
CC PU 0.936 0.945 0.951 0.795
PEOU 0.879 0.881 0.917 0.738
BI 0.992 0.992 0.993 0.968
CRS PU 0.914 0.938 0.936 0.745
PEOU 0.958 0.966 0.970 0.889
BI 0.987 0.987 0.989 0.949
VR PU 0.955 0.957 0.965 0.847
PEOU 0.942 0.964 0.956 0.812
BI 0.992 0.992 0.994 0.970