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Table 1 Outer standardized loadings of the measurement models of each tool’s technology acceptance (CRS, e-lectures, CC, and VR)

From: Technology acceptance of four digital learning technologies (classroom response system, classroom chat, e-lectures, and mobile virtual reality) after three months’ usage

  CRS E-lectures CC VR
  PU PEOU BI PU PEOU BI PU PEOU BI PU PEOU BI
PU1 0.913    0.892    0.892    0.905   
PU2 0.897    0.762    0.889    0.923   
PU3 0.851    0.852    0.897    0.936   
PU4 0.722    0.642    0.859    0.886   
PU5 0.918    0.799    0.920    0.951   
PEOU1   0.948    0.888    0.777    0.905  
PEOU2   0.942    0.921    0.938    0.951  
PEOU3   0.676    0.457    0.648    0.765  
PEOU4   0.972    0.911    0.844    0.942  
PEOU5   0.909    0.937    0.865    0.929  
BI1    0.974    0.930    0.980    0.983
BI2    0.971    0.917    0.990    0.988
BI3    0.976    0.931    0.983    0.983
BI4    0.973    0.930    0.985    0.984
BI5    0.976    0.927    0.982    0.986
  1. We removed loadings under 0.7 (italics) and did not consider them in further analysis