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Table 9 The quantity and percentage of each type of feedback grouped by learning tasks

From: Investigating feedback implemented by instructors to support online competency-based learning (CBL): a multiple case study

Types of feedback Task 1 (Low complexity) Task 2 (Medium complexity) Task 3 (High complexity)
QCRa Type-all-ratiob QCR Type-all-ratio QCR Type-all-ratio
Diagnostic feedback (F1) 475 28.89% (↑) 293 30.75% (↑) 221 18.54% (↑)
Feedback for justification (F2) 60 3.65% 21 2.20% 15 1.26% (↓)
Feedback for improvement (F3) 477 29.01% (↑) 230 24.13% (↑) 412 34.56% (↑)
Complementary teaching (F4) 23 1.40% 2 0.21% (↓) 7 0.59% (↓)
Motivational Feedback (F5) 74 4.50% 30 3.15% 62 5.20%
Praise (F6) 434 26.40% (↑) 321 33.68% (↑) 307 25.76% (↑)
Enhancing time management (F7) 1 0.06% (↓) 4 0.42% (↓) 20 1.68%
Connective feedback (F8) 28 1.70% 31 3.25% 71 5.96%
Encourage use of feedback (F9) 51 3.10% 3 0.31% (↓) 30 2.52%
Foster communication and help-seeking (F10) 12 0.73% (↓) 12 1.26% 45 3.78%
Emotional feedback (F11) 9 0.55% (↓) 6 0.63% 2 0.17% (↓)
Summed total 1644 100% 953 100% 1192 100%
  1. a"QCR" refers to the quantity of the coded reference
  2. b"Type-all-ratio" refers to the ratio of the coded reference of each type of feedback to the summed value of the coded reference of all kinds of feedback for each learning task