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Table 11 Data transformation methods

From: Predicting academic success in higher education: literature review and best practices

MethodsApplication in EDMRef.
NormalizationAll fields(Putpuek et al., 2018)
DiscretizationNumeric variable
Conversion to numericLetter grades(Anuradha & Velmurugan, 2015)
Level combinationAttendance, assignements, letter grades, CGPA(Almarabeh, 2017; Anuradha & Velmurugan, 2015; Mohamed & Waguih, 2017; Putpuek et al., 2018; Sivasakthi, 2017; Yassein et al., 2017)