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Table 3 Construct and measurement model

From: Engagement in cloud-supported collaborative learning and student knowledge construction: a modeling study

Constructs Items Loading Cronbach’s Alpha AVE CR References
Cognitive engagement (CE) Shallow CE1 0.901 0.892 0.823 0.933 Greene and Miller (1996)
CE2 0.912
CE3 0.911
Meaningful CE4 0.907 0.884 0.812 0.928
CE5 0.897
CE6 0.899
Cognitive presence (CP) Triggering event CP1 0.834 0.772 0.686 0.867 Garrison et al. (2001)
CP2 0.842
CP3 0.808
Exploration CP4 0.843 0.799 0.714 0.882
CP5 0.815
CP6 0.876
Integration CP7 0.833 0.789 0.703 0.877
CP8 0.844
CP9 0.839
Resolution CP10 0.845 0.779 0.693 0.872
CP11 0.828
CP12 0.825
Knowledge sharing (KS) Sense of self-worth KS1 0.828 0.850 0.690 0.899 Nandy (2015)
KS2 0.799
KS3 0.847
KS4 0.848
Willingness to support KS5 0.881 0.913 0.742 0.935
KS6 0.846
KS7 0.883
KS8 0.823
KS9 0.872
Reflective thinking (RT) Habitual action RT1 0.840 0.850 0.690 0.899 Kember et al. (2000)
RT5 0.821
RT9 0.787
RT13 0.873
Understanding RT2 0.829 0.867 0.715 0.909
RT6 0.858
RT10 0.857
RT14 0.839
Reflection RT3 0.855 0.859 0.703 0.904
RT7 0.870
RT11 0.785
RT15 0.842
Critical reflection RT4 0.854 0.867 0.715 0.909
RT8 0.873
RT12 0.846
RT16 0.808
Knowledge construction (KC) Problem understanding KC1 0.767 0.874 0.569 0.902 Tillema and van der Westhuizen (2006)
KC2 0.730
KC3 0.791
KC4 0.722
KC5 0.777
KC6 0.719
KC7 0.772
Achieving perspective KC8 0.843 0.912 0.656 0.930
KC9 0.806
KC10 0.776
KC11 0.788
KC12 0.811
KC13 0.794
KC14 0.848
Commitment KC15 0.830 0.910 0.690 0.930
KC16 0.808
KC17 0.837
KC18 0.858
KC19 0.844
KC20 0.794