Skip to main content

Table 4 Eta Squared Values for Significant ANOVAs

From: Integrating students’ perspectives about online learning: a hierarchy of factors

Independent Variables Critical Success Factors (from most to least important)
Basic online modality Instruct-ional support Teaching presence Cognitive presence Online Social Comfort Online interactive modality Social presence
Graduate vs. Undergraduate
Graduates rate these factors higher than undergraduates
  0.01 0.01 0.01   0.05  
Elder students rate this factor higher
Work Status
Working students rate these factors higher
0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03   0.01 0.01
Latino and White rate basic online modality and instructional support higher; API rate social presence higher
0.02 0.03      0.03
No significant difference found across 5 disciplines
Online Experience
Students who have taken more online classes rate all these factors higher
0.02 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01
  1. Eta Squared> 0.01 small effect, Eta Squared> 0.06 medium effect, Eta Squared> 0.14 large effect