|Dimension||Research gap||Related findings/references|
- Blended formats improve actual learning and reduce dropout rates (López-Pérez et al., 2011).|
- Blended formats improve actual learning but increase dropout rates (Deschacht & Goeman, 2015).
- Blended formats do not affect actual learning but increase dropout rates (McLaren, 2004).
- Collaboration leads to higher perceived learning and satisfaction (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2006).|
- Interaction predicts online learning satisfaction, which affects perceived learning (Eom et al., 2006).
- A perceived lack of community is disadvantageous for perceived learning (Song et al., 2004).
- Peer interaction can negatively influence satisfaction (Arbaugh & Rau, 2007).
- Technology richness promotes feedback and benefits perceived learning (Webster & Hackley, 1997).|
- Technology features that encourage constructive dialogue foster understanding (Kember et al., 2010).
- Technology design and functions affect perceived learning (Volery & Lord, 2000; Wu et al., 2010).
- Technology variety benefits satisfaction but impedes perceived learning (Arbaugh & Rau, 2007).
|Instructor||Teaching style||- Group learning is moderated by an objectivist teaching approach and individual learning is moderated by a constructivist teaching approach (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2006).|
- Feedback benefits learners with medium prior knowledge and hinders learners with low prior knowledge. It barely affects learners with high prior knowledge (Seufert, 2003).|
- Learners with low prior knowledge learn better individually with instructor support. Learners with high prior knowledge are hindered by feedback (Nihalani et al., 2011).
- Deliberate confusion is beneficial for learning. Prior knowledge has small moderation effects
(D’Mello et al., 2014).
- Motivation can mediate learning through cognitive engagement (Moreno & Mayer, 2007).|
- E-learners expect their motivation to be related to learning (Song et al., 2004).
- Motivation affects e-learning acceptance and satisfaction (Selim, 2007).
- Motivation predicts actual learning in both physical and virtual settings (López-Pérez et al., 2011).
- Motivation affects satisfaction but is not directly related to perceived learning (Eom et al., 2006).
- Positive emotions can improve comprehension and transfer (Plass et al., 2014; Um et al., 2012).|
- Positive emotions diminish actual learning. Negative emotions enhance it (Knoerzer et al., 2016).
- Emotions may be mediated by motivation and/or moderated by prior knowledge (Leutner, 2014).
- There is no relationship between emotions and motivation (Knoerzer et al., 2016).