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Table 2 Data Sources and Tools used for TA in Education

From: Teaching analytics, value and tools for teacher data literacy: a systematic and tripartite approach

Source of DataTools used to Capture DataVariables MeasuredExamplesSource
Digital Trace DataComputer, smartphones and other smart devices including tablets, IWB, and IRS.Page views, Downloads, Videos watched, Attempted questions.LMS Logs, OLM Logs, e-book Logs, Network Logs, Application Logs.(Barmaki and Hughes 2015; Gauthier 2013; Ginon et al. 2016; Goggins et al. 2016; Libbrecht et al. 2013; Saar et al. 2017; Saar et al. 2018; Suehiro et al. 2017; Vatrapu et al. 2012; Xu and Recker 2012)
Image DataDocument Camera, Computer cameras, Smartphone cameras and Stand-alone video cameras.Frames, Picture points, Shape, Image recognition.Images, Pictures, Skeleton Infrared Images.(Barmaki and Hughes 2015; Laney 2001; Prieto et al. 2018)
Physiological DataWearable Wristband, Eye-tracker, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Accelerometers.Heart rate, Skin response, Eye movement, Brain activity, Body movement, Body gesture, Emotional activation, Area of interest, Attention, Heatmap, Frustration, Engagement, Meditation, Excitement, FixationEye-tracking Data, EEG Data, Accelerometer Data.(Pantazos and Vatrapu 2016; Prieto et al. 2016; Prieto et al. 2017; Prieto et al. 2018)
Stream DataSmartphone (audio recorder and audio-visual recorder), Camera (smartphone-camera and recorder, eye-tracker audio-visual camera and recorder, HD camcoders, stand alone video cameras)Extracted features: Total near faces per frame, Maximum blur faces per frame, Enveloped skewness.Audio data, Video data.(Barmaki and Hughes 2015; Goggins et al. 2016; KU et al. 2018; Prieto et al. 2016; Saar et al. 2017; Thomas 2018)
Social DataSocial media platforms, email service provides, MOOCs and LMS discussion forums.Context, Content, Sentiments, Topics, Meaning, Summary.Charts, Posts, Replies, Shares, Likes, Tweets, Retweets.(Chounta et al. 2016; Goggins et al. 2016; Pantazos et al. 2013; Vatrapu et al. 2013)
Text DataDocument Camera, Smartphone and ComputersContext, Content, Sentiment, Topics, Meaning, Summary, Intention.Qualitative data, Quantitative data, Essay write-ups, Student feedback, Speech-to-text, Repertory grid data.(Gauthier 2013; Müller et al. 2016; Saar et al. 2018; Sergis and Sampson 2016; Taniguchi et al. 2017; Vatrapu et al. 2013)