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Table 6 Charting of focus group data

From: Educational innovation projects in Dutch higher education: bottom-up contextual coping to deal with organizational challenges

 Coping codes
C10 Primary appraisalC11 Secondary appraisalC12 Coping efforts
Thematic Codes (online teaching)
C1 Skills gap for developing OOEForm and status of materials regarded differently:
- Knowledge about possibilities and appropriate forms missing
- Development of materials seems more definitive and less easy to adjust
- Use and reuse of materials ambiguous and complex
Teacher practices more distributed:
- Involvement of external and multiple stakeholders
- Communication with all stakeholders
Consideration of form, media and learning objectives
- Consider use and reuse possibilities
- Adjust the form of the materials specifically to learning objectives and requirements
Involvement of more stakeholders in the development process:
- Incoporate teachers and their preferences
- Make use of expertise of external bureaus and media parties
- Involvement of library in data management
Sharing of knowledge:
- Platform/central portal or meeting opportunities to gain ideas and knowledge
- Consider major time investment beforehand
- Consider multiple stakeholders
- Don’t underestimate coordination of tasks and responsibilities
Seeking support:
- Coaching by external expertise
- Supporting tools (e.g. autocue)
- Make use of informal networks to find expertise
Create possibilities to experiment:
- Make use of local/bottum up resources (e.g. budget form local bodies for for example equipment)
- Set up local workshops
C2 Skills gap for teaching in OOEn/an/an/a
C3 Lack of awareness of goal and merits of OOEThe commons idea behind OOE is missing:
- Individualistic attitude
- Forced extrinsic motivation ➔ no intrinsic value creation ➔ ambiguous knowledge of OOE
Not being able to see multiple applications of OOE materials
Management does not pick up on bottom up initiatives
Sharing of knowledge:
- Platform/central portal with a collection of ideas and good practices to get inspired
Incentivise OOE development and teaching innovations
Adapted and personalised training possibilities
Sharing knowledge:
- Share examples with direct colleagues
- Emphazise the gains for others in their contexts
- Project as organizational signal
C4 Reluctance to use/participate in OOEn/an/an/a
C5 Time constraints of teachersn/an/an/a
C6 Changing role of the teacherOwnership:
- Of educational material distributed
- Process of producing material distributed
- New requirements for teaching
- Reluctance of teachers accepting a tasks/roles
- Control over choices in the design process distributed
Emphasis on educational design over teaching
Role distribution:
- Make it a collective effort
- Find fitting roles
- Make solid agreements on roles and responsibilities
- Invest time and effort in continuously checking role distribution and expectations
- Involve stakeholders internally to fulfill new roles (e.g. library)
Thematic Codes (support mechanisms)
C7 Lack of operational supportBasic technical support:
- Decisions on IT on higher level sometimes hinder OOE design
- Not sufficiently adjusted to requirements for OOE (i.e. is one size fits all)
- Hard to find the appropriate support
Central advisory body:
- Strategic choice of institution
- Centrally located
- Adjusted and personal advice
- Content and format experts equally important
- Clear distribution of tasks and responsibilities
Professionalization on OOE skills:
- Formal requirement (e.g. part of incentive structure)
- Training (e.g. as part of a BKO)
Involve decision makers:
- Involve decsion makers from higher levels early on
- Find where crucial decisions are being taken
The power of bottom up:
- Find capacity in own circle of influence
- Access to resources at local budgets
- Creation of awareness
C8 Lack of strategic supportInvolvement management
- Long term choices taken at higher levels (e.g. infrastructure) ➔ hard to influence
- Management not involved throughout the whole process
- Funding during project period, ends after
Role models:
- Chairs in Open Education (professorships)
- Put good work and examples in the spotlight (e.g. rewards)
Incentive structures:
- Rewarding more than just teaching and research
Structural funding:
- Included in institutional budgets of HEIs for experimentation
OOE for non-formal educational purposes to build capacity:
- Pre-master
- Pre-university
- Extra curricular
- Additional materials (complementary to existing curricula)
Informal information sharing
- Source of information for colleagues
- Source of inspiration for colleagues
- Sharing project outcomes
C9 Lack of policy in the organizationTop-down facilitation:
- Overarching commons vision needs overarching stimulation
Strategic choices not fitting operational needs:
- IT choices
Connecting levels within HEI:
- Bottom up enthusiasm goes hand in hand with top-down facilitation (e.g. time given, resources available, experimentation room)
Bottom-up persistence:
- Arrange equipment, studio and funding locally
- Better uptake throughout the organization
Appealing to external professional communities:
- Funding
- Long term sustainability
- Broad uptake outside HEI (legitimization)