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Table 7 Survey instrument item

From: The roles of academic engagement and digital readiness in students’ achievements in university e-learning environments

Constructs Items Reference
1. Academic engagement (AE)
 AE1 Making sure to study on a regular basis Adapted from Handelsman et al. (2005)
 AE2 Finding ways to make the course interesting to me
 AE3 Thinking about the course between class meetings
 AE4 Really desiring to learn the material
 AE5 Having fun in class
2. E-learning adoption (EA)
 EA1 I have the knowledge necessary to use the digital learning system on campus. Adapted from Chu and Chen (2016)
 EA2 I have control over the digital learning system on campus.
 A3 I have the resources necessary to use the digital learning system on campus.
3. E-learning attitude (ET)
 ET1 I feel positively about digital learning. Adapted from Chu and Chen (2016)
 ET2 Studying with digital learning is a good idea.
 ET3 Studying with digital learning is a wise idea.
 ET4 All things considered, using the digital learning system on campus is beneficial to me.
4. Digital readiness (DR)
 DR1 I can generate keywords to search information for academic work. Adapted from Hong and Kim (2018)
 DR2 I can interact with classmates using real-time communication tools (e.g., video conferencing tools or messengers).
 DR3 I can share my files with classmates using online software.
 DR4 I can collaborate with classmates using online software.