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Table 3 Types of knowledge contributions based upon review sample (N = 31)

From: Higher education dominance and siloed knowledge: a systematic review of flipped classroom research

Type of knowledge contribution Characteristics Quantity Studies (identified by the previous numbering, see also Appendix 1)
Studies that are local in character Studies of local course experiments, subject-specific areas, case studies, etc. 26 1, 3–10, 12, 14, 15, 17–20, 22–26, 31–33, 35
Claims of improved student learning and/or student motivation Argue that Flipped classrooms enhance student learning or motivation, often by comparing with a traditional teaching approach 19 3, 4, 6–10, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 23–26, 28–33, 35
Comparisons of Flipped classrooms/Inverted classrooms to other forms provided Comparing Flipped classrooms/Inverted classrooms (mainly) to traditional forms of teaching 16 3–5, 7–10, 14, 15, 23, 25, 26, 30, 32, 33, 35
Opinion-based or reflection-based arguments around flipped classrooms Typically editorials, reflections or opinion sections 4 2, 11, 13, 28
Learning/educational theories are explicit Theoretical approach or understanding is explicit and referenced 11 1, 3, 6, 9, 18, 23, 24, 29, 31, 33, 35