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Table 1 Conversation analysis transcription symbols

From: Situated learning through intergenerational play between older adults and undergraduates

Symbol Meaning
= No gap between two utterances; latching
(0.0) Timed interval (pause) in 1/10 of a second
(.) A tiny gap
Word Stress
: Sound strech
:: Prolongation of sound
? Rising intonation
↑↓ Shifts into higher or lower pitch
° Quieter sounds (symbol placed before and after)
< > Slowed down speed
>< Speeding up
£ Smiling voice (before and after the particular words)
(()) Descriptions, e.g. ((laughter))