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Table 3 Descriptive and inferential statistics of student conceptual learning

From: Undergraduate students’ conceptual interpretation and perceptions of haptic-enabled learning experiences

  Pretest Posttest Gain = posttest – pretest
Category Mean Std. dev. Mean Std. dev. Mean gain t p-value
Total score 5.23 2.06 7.03 1.77 1.8 4.267 0.000
General 1.00 0.64 1.37 0.61 0.37 3.266 0.003
Point charge 1.07 0.74 1.43 0.68 0.37 2.257 0.032
Line charge 1.1 0.71 1.53 0.68 0.43 2.765 0.010
Ring charge 2.06 1.11 2.7 1.02 0.63 2.392 0.023