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Table 1 Adaptation of CATLM principles for the learning design

From: Undergraduate students’ conceptual interpretation and perceptions of haptic-enabled learning experiences

Design principles and corresponding theoretical rationale (Moreno & Mayer, 2007) Adaptation of principles for the study
Guided activity Students learn better when allowed to interact with a pedagogical agent who helps guide their cognitive processing Guided activity encourages essential and generative processing by prompting students to engage in the selection, organization, and integration of new information The experimental design is a guided activity with the instructional module serving as a guide to the learner.
Reflection Students learn better when asked to reflect upon correct answers during the process of meaning making Reflection promotes essential and generative processing by encouraging more active organization and integration of new information The students complete the lab reports and record their observations and reasoning behind choosing the correct answer.
Feedback Students learn better with explanatory rather than corrective feedback alone Explanatory feedback reduces extraneous processing by providing students with proper schemas to repair their misconceptions Explanatory feedback was replaced with perceptual feedback, which is provided by the haptic device as force feedback.
Pacing Students learn better when allowed to control the pace of presentation of the instructional materials Pace control reduces representational holding by allowing students to process smaller chunks of information in working memory The experimental study was designed so that students can control the pace of their work and learning.
Pre-training Students learn better when they receive focused pre-training that provides or activates relevant prior knowledge Pre-training helps guide the learner’s generative processing by showing which aspects of prior knowledge to integrate with incoming information Students were exposed to a haptics pre-training session in order to become familiarized with this technology.